The discovery that the urinary tract has a microbiome analogous to the one in the digestive tract has led to research showing that in women with urinary incontinence, their urinary microbiome differs from those in women who do not have urinary incontinence.
The discomfort and potential embarrassment of urinary incontinence keeps many people from the activities they enjoy, but some simple behavioral changes can improve bladder control.
Urinary incontinence is more common in women, but men experience it too, particularly as they get older. Whether it’s urge incontinence or stress incontinence, there are strategies and treatments that can help.
Getting up at night to use the bathroom is often thought of as a problem mainly for older men. Not so—two in three women over age 40 wake up at least once each night because of a full bladder. And nearly half of them make two or more nighttime trips to the bathroom. Factors that increased the likelihood that a woman woke at night to urinate included older age, having had a hysterectomy, having hot flashes, and using vaginal estrogen. Many of the women had no other urinary problems, such as an overactive bladder or leaking urine when coughing, and many weren’t especially bothered by having to get up at night to urinate. Getting up once or more each night to urinate may not be “bothersome,” but it can still cause problems. It can interfere with sleep. It can also lead to falls and injury.
New guidelines from the American College of Physicians offer drug-free ways women can use to reduce or stop urinary incontinence, a potentially embarrassing condition that affects millions of women. The guidelines recommend that women first try Kegel exercises, bladder training, exercise, and weight loss if needed. These approaches can work for both of the leading types of urinary incontinence: stress incontinence (leakage with laughter, sneezing, or other things that put pressure on the bladder) and urge incontinence, also known as overactive bladder, which is caused by unpredictable contractions of muscles in the bladder wall. Other lifestyle changes, like watch fluid intake and minimizing bladder irritants like caffeine, alcohol, carbonated drinks, and other may also help. If these approaches aren’t effective, the next step might be treatment with medication, surgery, or even an injection of botulinum toxin to relax overactive bladder muscles.
As many as 32 million American women and men have some degree of incontinence—the unintended loss of urine or feces that is significant enough to make it difficult to do ordinary activities without frequent trips to the restroom. The most common causes of incontinence are childbirth and aging in women; prostate disorders and their treatment in men. Treatments include exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor, fluid management, medications, and surgery. For people with urinary incontinence, fluid management is an easy place to start, explains Better Bladder and Bowel Control, a new Special Health Report from Harvard Medical School. This involves drinking only when you are thirsty, limiting your fluid intake from all sources to six to eight 8-ounce cups of fluid per day from all sources, and minimizing caffeinated and carbonated drinks, as well as alcohol.
Millions of Americans—most of them women—suffer from a bladder condition known as interstitial cystitis. According to a new study of this disorder, fewer than 10% of women with symptoms of interstitial cystitis are actually diagnosed with the disorder, even though it severely affects their lives. Without a proper diagnosis, women with interstitial cystitis are missing […]